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Level Settings Block

Every Area has its own Level Settings Block defined inside the Main Stage Table (see: Levels). The level settings block defines the camera, pathing, collision, and entities spawned inside the stage. The Basic Structure of the Level Settings Block is as follows.

Level Settings Layout

  1. Main Header
  2. Vertices
  3. Triangles
  4. Surface Normals
  5. Triangle Groups/Cells
  6. Surface Normals Groups/Cells
  7. Water Data
  8. Water Normals
  9. Destructable Geometry Groups
  10. Destructable Geometry Indices
  11. Collision Header (referred to by Main Header[0])
  12. Pathing Nodes
  13. Kirby Node Data & Camera Node Data
  14. Node Connections
  15. Unk Bytes
  16. Unk Floats
  17. Path Node Headers
  18. Node Header (referred to by Main Header[1])
  19. Entity List (referred to by Main Header[2])

Main Header

The main header contains references to the three main sections of the level settings block: Collision, Nodes and the Entity List.

struct Main_Header
/*0x00*/    struct Collision_Header    *Collision_Header;
/*0x04*/    struct Node_Header         *Node_Header;
/*0x08*/    struct Entities            (*Entity_IDs)[];
/*0x0C*/    int                        padding;


Collision is handled by several different lists that combine to create the level geometry.


Vertices are made up of unsorted s16 tripets of x, y and z position.

The vertex array starts with a 0x270F triplet and optionally ends with a single 0x9999. This is assumed to be for 4 byte alignment of the following sections.


Triangles are made by connecting 3 vertices referenced by their index. (e.g. 0,1,2 is made up of vertices 0,1 and 2 in the list). Every Triangle has a struct that has additional parameters telling the game how to handle collision.

struct Col_Triangle
/*0x0*/ 	u16    Vertex[3];
/*0x6*/ 	u16	   Polygon_Number;
/*0x8*/ 	u16    Normal_Type;          //(1 forward norm, 2 back norm, 4 no shadow, 8 non solid)
/*0xA*/ 	u16	   Collision_Type_Index; //based on col type this num references array pos
/*0xC*/ 	u16	   Break_Particle;       //(seen in DEDEDE hammer break)
/*0xE*/ 	u16	   Halt_Movement;        //Stops kirby from moving/triggers automatic behavior.
/*0x10*/	s16	   Col_Param1;           //ex.Amount to move kirby while on certain col types or Break Condition
/*0x12*/	u16	   Collision_Type;       //see col type list

The following is a list of Collision_Type values known.

  • 0x0 - default
  • 0x1 - wall ladder
  • 0x2 - rope
  • 0x3 - death floor
  • 0x4 - Platform you can jump through/Fall Through
  • 0x8 - warp
  • 0x9 - STAR BLOCK/Breakable Blocks
  • 0xD - Breakable Ceiling/Breaks when launched through
  • 0x10 - DEDEDE hammer break
  • 0x12 - move kirby backwards while on top
  • 0x13 - move kirby forwards while on top
  • 0x14 - Platform with custom movement (seems to be in some sort of object list separate from normal level geometry)

The triangle list begins with a placeholder struct of (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)

Triangle Normals

Triangle normals are stored as a F32 array of 4 values. The first three values are the surface normals while the last is the origin offset. Together the normals should solve the plane equation (see:link).

The list of normals always starts with (-1,-2,-3,-4). Redundant normals are not repeated, but are just referenced multiple times (e.g. two triangles with norm Y==1 and offset==0 share their normal).

struct Normal
/*0x0*/    Vec3f    Surface_Normals;
/*0xC*/    f32      Origin_Offset;

Triangle Groups

The triangle groups is a list of triangles used to make collision sorting more efficient.

The triangle group list begins with a flag of 0x8192 and ends with 0x9999. Each triangle group is a u16 list of indices to the triangle struct array.

Each triangle group represents one polygon index (0x6 in tri struct). The groups are defined by setting the msb at the last triangle in that group. This means any coplanar, connected N-gon will be a single polygon group.

There should be an equal amount of items in the triangle list and triangle group list, but there may be repeats based on how the normal groups are split. Triangles within groups are sorted by Y values.

Normal Groups

The normal groups are a binary space partition tree of the level normals and corresponding triangles associated with those normals. Each normal group represents a node in the tree, and has a right and left child based on whether the ensemble of triangles is in front or behind the parent node.

If a triangle group intersects a normal, then the group is split and the normal is repeated in both the left and right children. If that group shares a condition such as being breakable, then the entire group is repeated in the left and right branches.

Child indices of zero refer to leaf nodes, the tree start is defined in the collision header.

struct Norm_Group
/*0x0*/  u16  Normal_Index;
/*0x2*/  u16  Left_Child;
/*0x4*/  u16  Right_Child;
/*0x6*/  u16  Tri_Cell_Index

Destructable Geometry Groups

A Destructable Geo list is referenced by certain collision types using 0xA inside the col tri struct. This is so instead of destroying one triangle, all connected geometry is edited as a single rigid body.

When a triangle is going to be edited, 0xA of the tri struct references the index into this list. This list will then tell the game the index to the array of destructable geo indices and the number of members in that array.

struct DynGeo_List
/*0x0*/  u16  Num_Dynamic_Geo_Group_Members; //Number of connected triangles
/*0x2*/  u16  Index_To_Dynamic_Geo_Group; //(0x30 in col header)
/*0x4*/  u16  Layout_Number; //Linked display geometry to also remove

The dynamic geo list usually ends with 0x9999, but it is not necessary. Potentially for alignment. The dynamic geo list can also be null, in that case the col header will have a null ptr to match.

Destructable Geometry Indices

Destructable geometry indices are an array of u16 indices that reference the tri struct array.

When a triangle is being edited, 0xA in the tri struct points to the destructable geometry group. From there an index to this destructable geometry index list is given, and the number of members in that list.

The dynamic geomtry group only has the references to triangles. The transformation (only destruction?) is applied based on col type or specific code.

The dynamic geo geoup array usually ends with 0x9999, but its not necessary. Possibly for alignment. This list can also be null, and will have a null ptr in the col header to match.

Water Data

Water data is an array of water structs that will determine how kirby collides with water. Normals and a bounding box are used instead of polygons to determine collision. First kirby has to be inside the bounding box inside the water data struct. Then the normals are used. Normals are different than collision triangle geometry in that they define an infinite plane. The normal planes intersect to create a closed surface which is used as the collision check.

struct Water_Data
/*0x0*/    u16    Num_Normals;
/*0x2*/    u16    Norm_Array_Index;
/*0x4*/    u8     Water_Box_Active;
/*0x5*/    u8     Activate_Water_Flow;
/*0x6*/    u8     Water_Flow_Direction;
/*0x7*/    u8     Water_Flow_Speed;
/*0x8*/    f32    Pos1;
/*0xC*/    f32    Pos2;
/*0x10*/   f32    Pos3;
/*0x14*/   f32    Pos4;

Water Floats

Works exactly like floats for other collision triangles. Lead by a (1,2,3,4) the followed by (3*norms,origin offset). See struct Normal. Follows all the conventions for normals that you'd expect, including n * r = -offset.

This list is only accessed by being pointed to by the water data struct.

Collision Header

The collision header is referred to by the first index inside the main header. The collision header has the following format.

struct Collision_Header
/*0x0*/    struct Col_Triangle    *Triangles;
/*0x4*/    u32       Len_Triangles;
/*0x8*/    s16       (*Vertices)[][3];
/*0xC*/    u32       Len_Vertices;
/*0x10*/   struct Normal          (*Triangle_Normals)[];
/*0x14*/   u32       Len_Tiangle_Normals;
/*0x18*/   u16       (*Triangle_Cells)[][2];
/*0x1C*/   u32       Len_Triangle_Cells;
/*0x20*/   u16       (*Triangle_Norm_Cells)[][2];
/*0x24*/   u32       Len_Triangle_Norm_Cells;
/*0x28*/   u32       Norm_Cell_BSP_Root; //Always last member
/*0x2C*/   struct DynGeo_List     (*Destructable_Groups)[];
/*0x30*/   u16       (*Destructable Indices)[];
/*0x34*/   struct Water_Data      (*Water_Data)[];
/*0x38*/   u32       Len_Water_Data;
/*0x3C*/   struct Normal          (*Water_Normals)[];
/*0x40*/   u32       Len_Water_Normals;

After the level loads the pointers are converted from offsets in the Level Settings Block to virtual addresses in a different RAM location accompanied by other collision data generated.


The level nodes are referred to by the second index in the main header. This section tells the game how to move kirby as you progress through the level and how the camera should act.

struct Node_Header
/*0x0*/    u32    Num_Path_Nodes;
/*0x4*/    struct Path_Node_Header   (*Path_Node_Header)[];
/*0x8*/    u8     (*Unk_Bytes)[];
/*0xC*/    f32    (*Unk_Floats)[];

Path Node Headers

Pathing nodes are sections of the level that have a defined path and camera movement for kirby as he progresses through the level.

Each node has several parts which are pointed to by the path node header array.

struct Path_Node_Header
/*0x0*/    struct Kirby_Node	      *Kirby_Node;
/*0x4*/	   struct Path_Node_Footer    *Path_Node_Footer;
/*0x8*/	   struct Node_Connecters     (*Node_Connections)[];
/*0xC*/	   u16		Num_Connections;
/*0xE*/	   u16		Self_Connected;

Path Nodes

Path nodes are made up of 3 mandatory parts, and one optional part. A footer, a position matrix, and the boundary matrix are required. The optional section has unknown use.

The path node footer contains pointers to the other sections, as well as important data for those sections.

The boundary matrix is a N×1 matrix that has percentage completion for the positional matrix. This matrix tells the game how much each position in the position matrix contributes towards one node.

The position matrix is a 3×N matrix which tells the game the absolute positioning of kirby as you progress through the level. This matrix is how kirby moves in both X and Z when you push to the right.

All together these sections create a path which kirby will walk along when you push right/left. Theyre ordered in the rom as: Position matrix, boundary matrix, unknown path matrix, path node footer.

struct Path_Node_Footer
/*0x00*/    u32    FlagUnk; //0x200 if *Unk should be used
/*0x04*/    u32    Num_Node_Sections;
/*0x08*/    Vec3f  (*Position_Matrix)[];
/*0x0C*/    f32    Node_Length;
/*0x10*/    f32    (*Boundary_Matrix)[];
/*0x14*/    f32    (*Unk)[][5];

The unknown section is almost always null. All that is known is that it follows the boundary matrix and is an areay of 5 floats, with length of Num_Node_Sections-1. The number of Position_Matrices is extended by FlagUnk/0x100. Since its always 0x0 or 0x200 depending on the unk section it is only ever extended by 2.

Camera&Kirby Nodes

These nodes tell the game how to move the camera with respect to the path nodes. There are settings for kirby's graphics, and warps as he progresses through the level, as well as camera movement.

Thr flag in 0xE of Kirby_Node determines if 0x10 or 0x4 is read. A value of 0x10 reads unused3, and a value of 0x1 reads the warp. This wholly seems useless outside of setting up warps. Very likely to be old code left in.

Opt_1 and opt_2 are used only in 5-5-1.

struct Kirby_Node
/*0x00*/	u8      Node_Number;
/*0x01*/    u8      Padding;
/*0x02*/    u16     unk2;
/*0x04*/	struct Level    Warps;
/*0x08*/	u8  	unused;
/*0x09*/	u8   	Shade_Left;
/*0x0A*/	u8	    Shade_Center;
/*0x0B*/	u8  	Shade_Right;
/*0x0C*/	u16  	unused2;
/*0x0E*/	u16	    Unkflag;
/*0x10*/	s16     unused3;
/*0x12*/    s16     unused4;
/*0x14*/	f32     opt_1;
/*0x18*/	f32     opt_2;
/*0x1C*/	u32     unused5;
/*0x20*/    struct Camera_Node    Camera;

For any of the camera values, 9999 can be used to disable reading that value. For a pair, -9999 is used in the first member and 9999 in the second member to disable them.

Certain values are only used if the bool enables them. For example a focus pos is only used if that axis is locked.

The bounds variables basically set limits on how far the camera moves before panning to face kirby instead of scrolling.

struct Camera_Node
/*0x00*/   u8     Profile_View; /* Set position to be in line with kirbys side*/
/*0x01*/   u8     Pad; /*Unused*/
/*0x02*/   u8     Lock_X_pos;
/*0x03*/   u8     Lock_Y_pos;
/*0x04*/   u8     Lock_Z_pos;
/*0x05*/   u8     unused;
/*0x06*/   u8     DisableCamPhi;
/*0x07*/   u8     DisableCamPhiDown;
/*0x08*/   u8     EnableCamTheta;
/*0x09*/   u8     pad2;
/*0x0A*/   u16    pad3;
/*0x0C*/   f32    X_Focus_Pos;
/*0x10*/   f32    Y_Focus_Pos;
/*0x14*/   f32    Z_Focus_Pos;
/*0x18*/   f32    Near_Clip_Plane;
/*0x1C*/   f32    Far_Clip_Plane;
/*0x20*/   f32[2] CamRadiusScale;
/*0x28*/   f32[2] CamTheta;
/*0x30*/   f32[2] CamRadius;
/*0x38*/   f32[2] FOV_Pair;
/*0x40*/   f32[2] CamPhi;
/*0x48*/   f32[2] Cam_X_LockBounds;
/*0x50*/   f32[2] Cam_Y_LockBounds;
/*0x58*/   f32[2] Cam_Z_LockBounds;
/*0x60*/   f32[2] Cam_Yaw_LockBounds;
/*0x68*/   f32[2] Cam_Pitch_LockBounds;

Node Connectors

Node connectors tell the game which nodes to use as kirby hits the boundaries of a node. The number of connections for each node is listed in the path node header.

struct Node_Connectors
/*0x00*/    u16     Go_Backwards;
/*0x02*/    u16     Current_Node;
/*0x04*/    u16     Connected_Node; //Not sure
/*0x06*/    u16     Go_Foward;

Basically if a node is connected on both ends to the same node, there is only one node connector. In this case Go_Forward is used to determine if kirby should be allowed to pass or not. On the other hand Go_Backwards only allows movement through when 0. If there are two connections than backand front connect to different nodes. In that case the first determines backwards connection while the second determines forwards. Go_Backwards now determines all movement, with the same effect as the single node.

Entity List

The entity list is an array of structs which spawn objects as kirby gets in range. It is terminated by an 0x99999999 marker. See Entity IDs for more info. This section is optional and if a not pointed to in the main header will not be used.

kirby64_the_crystal_shards/level_settings_blocks.txt · Last modified: 2021/04/09 18:18 by someone2639